Ischemic tolerance of the brain from bench to bedside

  • B. J. Schaller Neurological Surgery, University Hospital Gottingen, Germany
  • M. Buchfelder Neurological Surgery, University Hospital, Erlangen, Germany

Аннотация

Neurons can be preconditioned by various procedures to resist ischemic events. The preconditioning mechanism induced is characterized by a brief episode of ischemia that renders the brain more resistant against subsequent longer ischemic events. This ischemic tolerance has been shown in experimental animal model of cerebral ischemia and recently in humans. In contrary to the heart, the basic molecular mechanisms of cerebral ischemic tolerance are largely unknown in detail, but is initiated over several hours or days, and can persists for up to a week or more. The pathophysiological course can be divided in (i) induction, (ii) transduction and (iii) tolerance. The cellular mechanism is explained leading to the synthesis of stress proteins. These proteins works as cellular „chaperons" by unfolding misfolded cellular proteins and helping the cell to dispose of unneeded denatured proteins. Implications to clinical and therapeutic implications are drawn.

Литература

Bergeron M, Gidday JM, Yu AY, et al (2000). Role of hy- poxia-mtucible factor-1 in hypoxia-induced ischemic tolerance in neonatal rat brain. Ann Neurol 48: 285-296.

Blanco M, Lizasoain I, Sobrino T, et al..(2006) Ischemic preconditioning: a novel target for neuroprotective therapy. Cerebrovasc Dis. 21 Suppl 2:38-47.

Chen J, Simon R. .Ischemic tolerance in the brain. Neurology. 1997;48:306-11

Higashida RT, Furlan AJ, Roberts H, et al. .(2003) Trial design and reporting standards for intra-arterial cerebral thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 34:e109-37.

Daffertshofer M, Mielke O, Pullwitt A, et al. (2004) Transient ischemic attacks are more than "ministrokes". Stroke. 35:2453-8

Dowden J, Corbett D. (1999) Ischemic preconditioning in 18- to 20-month-old gerbils: long-term survival with functional outcome measures. Stroke. 30:1240-6.

Ehrenreich H, Hasselblatt M, Dembowski C, et al. (2002) Erythropoietin therapy for acute stroke is both safe and beneficial. Mol Med 8:495-505.

Ettaiche M, Heurteaux C, Bloodeae N, et al. (2001) ATP- sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) in retina: a key role for delayed ischemic tolerance. Braio Res. 890:118-29.

Ferriero DM. (2005) Protectiog neurons. Epilepsia. 46 Suppl 7:45-51

Fisher M, Ratan R (2003) New perspectives on developing acute stroke therapy. Ann Neurol 53:10-20.

Fisher M, Takaoo K. (1995) The penumbra, therapeutic time window and acute ischaemic stroke. Baillieres Clio Neurol. 4:279-95

Gidday JM. (2006) Cerebral preconditioning and ischaemic tolerance. Nat Rev Neurosci. 7(6):437-48

Heiss WD, Thiel A, Grood M, et al. (1999) Which targets are relevant for therapy of acute ischemic stroke? Stroke 30:1486-9.

Heiss WD (2003) Best measure of ischemic penumbra Posi- troo emission tomography. Stroke 34:2534-5.

Kirino T. (2002) Ischemic tolerance. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 22:1283-96

Lovett JK, Deoois MS, Saodercock PA, et al. (2003) Very early risk of stroke after a first transient ischemic attack. Stroke. 34: e138-e140.

Moocayo J, de Freitas GR, Bogousslavsky J, et al. (2000) Do transient ischemic attacks have a neuroprotective effect? Neurology. 54:2089-94.

Murry CE, Jeooiogs RB, Reimer KA (1986) Preconditioning with ischemia: A delay of lethal cell injury io ischemic myocardium, Circulation, 74: 1124-1136.

Perez-Pinzon MA, Dave KR, et al. (2005) Role of reactive oxygen species and protein kinase C in ischemic tolerance io the braio. Aotioxid Redox Signal. 7:1150-7.

Prass K, Scharff A, Ruscher K, et al. (2003) Hypoxia- induced stroke tolerance in the mouse is mediated by erythropoietin. Stroke. 34:1981-6

Prass K, Ruscher K, Karsch M, et al. (2002) Desferrioxam- ine induces delayed tolerance against cerebral ischemia in vivo and io vitro. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 22: 520-525.

Reshef A, Sperliog O, Zoref-Shani E. (2000) Role of K (ATP) channels in the induction of ischemic tolerance by the 'adenosine mechanism' in neuronal cultures. Adv Exp Med Biol. 486:217-21

Riepe MW, Kasischke K, Raupach A. (1997) Acetylsali- cylic acid increases tolerance against hypoxic and chemical hypoxia. Stroke. 28:2006-11

Rothwell PM. (2003) Incidence, risk factors and prognosis of stroke and TIA: the seed for high-quality, large-scale epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. Cerebrovasc Dis. 16 (suppl 3): 2-10

Ruscher K, Freyer D, Karsch M, et al. (2002) Erythropoietin is a paracrine mediator of ischemic tolerance in the brain: evideoce from ao io vitro model. J Neurosci. 22:1029110301.

Saver JL. (2004) Number needed to treat estimates incorporating effects over the entire range of clinical outcomes: novel derivation method and application to thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke. Arch Neurol. 61:1066-70.

Schaller BJ, Buchfelder M. (2006) Neuroprotection io primary brain tumors: sense or nonsense? Expert Rev Neu- rother. 6:723-30.

Schaller B (2005).Ischemic precooditiooiog as induction of ischemic tolerance after transient ischemic attacks in human braio: its clinical relevance. Neurosci Lett. 377:206-11

Schaller B, Graf R. (2004) Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion: the pathophysiologic concept as a basis for clinical therapy. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 24:351-71.

Schaller B, Graf R, Jacobs AH. (2003) Ischaemic tolerance: a window to endogenous neuroprotection? Laocet. 362:1007

Schaller B, Graf R. (2002) Cerebral ischemic precooditioo- ing. An experimental phenomenon or a clinical important eotity of stroke prevention? J Neurol. 249:1503-11

Schellioger PD, Hacke W (2005) Stroke: Advances io therapy. Laocet Neurol 4:2

Saver JL, Kidwell C. (2004) Neuroimaging io TIAs. Neurology. 62: S22-S25

Semenza GL (2000) HIF-1: mediator of physiological and pathophysiological responses to hypoxia. J Appl Physiol. 88: 1474-1480

Stenzel-Poore MP, Steveos SL, Simon RP. (2004) Genomics of precooditiooiog. Stroke 35(11 Suppl 1):2683-6

Trendelenburg G, Dirnagl U.(2005) Neuroprotective role of astrocytes in cerebral ischemia: focus on ischemic preconditioning. Glia. 50:307-20

Weih M, Kalleoberg K, Bergk A, et al. (1999) Attenuated stroke severity after prodromal TIA: a role for ischemic tolerance io the braio? Stroke 30:1851-4
Опубликован
2006-05-27
Как цитировать
Schaller, B., & Buchfelder, M. (2006). Ischemic tolerance of the brain from bench to bedside. Бюллетень международной научной хирургической ассоциации, 1(3), 69-71. извлечено от http://surgjournal.ru/index.php/BISSA/article/view/125
Раздел
Оригинальные статьи